Sahand Mountain is a majestic and picturesque mountain range located in northwest Iran, near the city of Tabriz. With an elevation of 3,720 meters, Kamal Peak is the highest peak in the East Azarbaijan province and one of the most prominent peaks in Iran. Sahand Mountain is an integral part of the region’s natural heritage and is a popular destination for hikers, mountaineers, and nature enthusiasts.

Geological formation

Sahand Mountain is a stratovolcano that was formed during the Quaternary period, which began around 2.6 million years ago and continues to the present day. The mountain is located at the intersection of several tectonic plates, including the Arabian, Eurasian, and Anatolian. The collision between these plates over millions of years has resulted in the formation of the mountain range.

Sahand Mountain is composed of several volcanic cones, with Kamal and Büyük Dağ being the highest peaks. The mountain has experienced several periods of volcanic activity throughout its history, with the most recent eruption occurring around 10,000 years ago.


Sahand Mountain is home to a rich diversity of plant and animal species, many of which are endemic to the region. The mountain range is covered in a mix of vegetation, including oak and beech forests, alpine meadows, and shrublands. Some of the plant species found in the area include wild pistachio, wild almond, and wild pear.

The mountain range is also home to a number of animal species, including the brown bear, the Persian leopard, the wild goat, and the gray wolf. The region is also an important flyway for migratory birds, with over 200 bird species recorded.


Sahand Mountain is home to several notable peaks that offer stunning views and challenging climbs for outdoor enthusiasts. Here are a few of the most famous peaks:

Kamal Peak

Kamal peak is the highest peak in the range, reaching an elevation of 3,720 meters. It is a popular destination for hikers and climbers, offering breathtaking views of the surrounding landscape.

Büyük Dağ Peak

Located in the northern part of the mountain range, Büyük Dağ peak is the second highest peak in the range, reaching an elevation of 3,611 meters. It offers stunning views of the surrounding mountains and forests.

Human History

Sahand Mountain has been inhabited by humans for thousands of years, and the region has a rich cultural history. The area was an important center of civilization during the early Bronze Age, with several ancient settlements and archaeological sites located in the surrounding valleys and plateaus.

In more recent times, the mountain range has been home to several nomadic tribes, including the Azeri people, who have lived in the region for centuries and are known for their traditional lifestyle and colorful clothing.


Sahand Mountain is a popular tourist destination, attracting visitors from around the world who come to experience its natural beauty and rich cultural heritage. In addition to hiking and climbing, visitors can enjoy a range of other outdoor activities, such as skiing and snowboarding during the winter months. The mountain range also offers a range of cultural attractions, including the ancient city of Tabriz and the nearby Kandovan village, which is famous for its unique cave dwellings.


The weather in Sahand Mountain is influenced by its high altitude and location in northwest Iran. The climate is generally cool and dry, with cold winters and mild summers. During the winter months, which usually last from November to March, the temperatures can drop well below freezing at night, and snow is common in the higher elevations of the mountain range. In fact, Sahand Mountain is a popular destination for skiing and snowboarding during this time, with several ski resorts located in the area.

In the summer months, which usually last from June to September, the temperatures are milder, with average temperatures ranging from 15-25°C (59-77°F) during the day. However, temperatures can still drop significantly at night, especially in the higher elevations of the mountain range. Rainfall in the area is highest during the spring and fall months, with the most precipitation occurring in April and May. The rest of the year is generally dry, with little rainfall.


Sahand Mountain is a natural gem of Iran, with a rich geological, biological, and cultural history. The range’s towering peaks, stunning landscapes, unique biodiversity, and favorable weather make it a must-visit destination for outdoor enthusiasts and nature lovers. Whether you’re interested in hiking, skiing, or learning about the region’s ancient history and cultural traditions, Sahand Mountain has something for everyone. So, if you’re planning a trip to Iran, make sure to add Sahand Mountain to your itinerary and experience the beauty of this natural wonder and its climate for yourself.

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